Safety Sense

one plus one is two. really?
When two pilots qualified to operate alone are flying together, do they add up to performing as a team of two? Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Andreas Grauer investigate

too tired?
Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren take a close look at the probable causes of a near-disaster in Denmark, where an incoming SAAB 2000 aircraft descended below minimum safe height

alcohol makes it not simple
Despite being a rarity, pilots’ alcohol consumption is an issue that has received extra attention after a series of high profile incidents. Here is one analyzed by Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren

i give you wing anti-ice later in the climb out, right?
Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren examine a Challenger 604 that crashed on take-off near Almaty after the captain failed to turn on the anti-icing protection systems despite the low temperature and presence of snow

’everything is ok’
At Helsinki Airport in 2012, crew actions following a mechanical failure caused a passenger plane to veer off the runway. Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren examine the reasons

ground collision on the active runway
The Linate Airport disaster remains Italy’s deadliest air accident, caused by a number of nonfunctioning and nonconforming safety standards and procedures at the airport. Michael R. Grüninger and Capt. Carl C. Norgren analyze the causes and general precautions for preventing runway incursions